Technology and the Future of Violence
February 11 & 12, 2013
Hosted by: Academic Exchange in Partnership with the Yitzhak Rabin Center and the Harvard Law School-Brookings Project on Law and Security
Monday, February 11, 2013 from 10 a.m. to 5:30 p.m.
Meetings in Milstein East A (Room 2036) in Wasserstein Hall (1585 Massachusetts Avenue, Cambridge, MA 02138) at Harvard Law School
Tuesday, February 12, 2013 from 9 a.m. to 1:45 p.m.
Meetings in Milstein East A (Room 2036) in Wasserstein Hall (1585 Massachusetts Avenue, Cambridge, MA 02138) at Harvard Law School
TECHNOLOGY AND THE FUTURE OF VIOLENCE ROUNDTABLE
FEBRUARY 11-12, 2013, HARVARD LAW SCHOOL
This two-day workshop will examine technology proliferation and its effect on violence both domestically and internationally. A small, interdisciplinary by- invitation-only group will look at whether and how cyber-, bio-, and robotic- platforms create a world of many-to-many threats, in which everyone potentially threatens everyone else, while they also generate an architecture of many-to-many defenses. It will examine whether the plummeting costs, increasing power, and capacity for remote operation of these platforms pose security challenges unlike those of previous technologies available to small groups and individuals. It will further examine the implications of this trend for both domestic and international governance of security.
Monday, February 11, 2013
9:30 am: Breakfast
10:00-10:15 am: Opening Remarks
10:15-12:15 pm: Many-to-Many Threats This session will examine, across several distinct technological platforms, whether and to what extent technology proliferation is creating a world of many-to-many threats, in which individuals and small groups have the power to deliver harms of a type and magnitude traditionally reserved to states, and to do so from remote positions and with diminished accountability. It will inquire whether this trend represents an inherent feature of the technology or a failure of governance of new technologies, and it will examine whether increased capacity necessarily implies increased risk.
12:15-1:00 pm: Lunch
1:00-3:00 pm: Many-to-Many Defenses This session will look at the flip-side distribution of defensive capacity among governments, private-sector actors, and individuals. It will examine whether and to what extent defensive functions we traditionally associate with governments are migrating to private actors, and whether the integration of private actors into government security functions raises challenges that do not exist in other regulatory spheres. It will also look at whether government’s capacity to protect security is eroding and whether the private sector plausibly can fill the gap.
3:00-3:30 pm: Break
3:30-5:30 pm: Current State of Governance This session will look at current legal, regulatory, and international efforts to control the spread and use of dual-use technologies that pose potential security threats. It will assess to what extent the regimes countries have in place are effective and adequate and to what extent they lag behind the pace of technological change. It will consider, specifically, domestic regulations and criminal laws, civil liability rules, and international treaty and customary norms with an eye toward evaluating gaps in governance, cooperation, and enforcement.
6:30 pm: Cocktails and Dinner
Tuesday, February 12, 2013
8:30 am: Breakfast
9:00-11:00 am: Options for Domestic Governance In this session, participants will explore options for improving domestic-level regulation of radically-empowering dual use technologies. In an effort to close gaps identified in the previous session, it will explore policy, technological and legal strategies for improving incentives for more secure architecture. In particular, it will look at whether criminal, regulatory, and liability rules can be more optimally aligned and whether surveillance rules are outdated and could be made more effective without fundamentally eroding privacy and civil liberties protections.
11:00-11:15 am: Break
11:15-12:45 pm: Options for International Governance In the final session, participants will consider how to improve international cooperation in both regulation and enforcement. They will evaluate the incentives for different states in promoting or hindering such international efforts, and they will look at the norms that should govern unilateral actions in the absence of more developed international cooperative regimes.
12:45-1:45 pm: Lunch and Concluding Remarks
Biographies of Roundtable Participants
Commander Michael J. Adams is a graduate of the United States Naval Academy and Georgetown University Law Center. Currently, he studies as a full-time LL.M. student at Harvard Law School, focusing on international and national security law as part of the U.S. Navy JAG Corps’ post-graduate education program.
Commander Adams began his career in the U.S. Navy in 1992. After commissioning, he first served as an instructor and baseball coach at Annapolis. Later, he graduated from Surface Warfare Officer School and earned his warfare qualifications as a line officer at sea. As a Surface Warfare Officer, Commander Adams was an engineer and legal officer aboard USS CIMARRON (AO 177) and the navigator and legal officer for USS PAUL HAMILTON (DDG 60).
Since becoming a judge advocate, Commander Adams has served in a variety of positions focusing on military operations and national security. In 2002, Commander Adams reported to Naval Legal Service Office Mid-Atlantic as Defense Counsel and National Security Litigator, Legal Assistance Attorney, and Claims Attorney. In 2005, Commander Adams was selected for duty at Naval Special Warfare Development Group (DEVGRU) as the Deputy Command Judge Advocate. He was subsequently selected to serve as the DEVGRU Group Judge Advocate beginning in 2007.
Commander Adams was then chosen as the Deputy Legal Advisor for NATO’s International Security Assistance Force Joint Command in Kabul, Afghanistan from September 2009 through August 2010. In March 2010, Commander Adams was also named the Staff Judge Advocate for the Deputy Commander, U.S. Forces – Afghanistan. From 2011 to 2012, Commander Adams served as the Deputy Staff Judge Advocate for U.S. Pacific Command and its forces operating across approximately half of the globe. He will report to the Pentagon in the summer of 2013 as the Deputy Legal Counsel to the Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff.
Commander Adams is admitted to practice before the courts of the Commonwealth of Virginia. His military decorations include the Bronze Star Medal, Defense Meritorious Service Medal with Bronze Oak Leaf Clusters (three awards), Joint Service Commendation Medal with Bronze Oak Leaf Cluster (two awards), the Navy Commendation Medal, the Navy Achievement Medal, the Combat Action Ribbon, and the Presidential Unit Citation. He is also entitled to wear the Surface Warfare Officer insignia, as well as the Navy and Marine Corps Parachutist insignia for having completed the Basic Airborne and Military Freefall courses. U.S. Special Operations Command named Commander Adams the 2007 Major General William F. Garrison award winner for exceptionally meritorious service, dedication, and commitment to excellence and for contributions to the Special Operations Forces community during the course of his career.
Commander Adams has deployed on eight occasions, including a Western Pacific deployment, six deployments to Afghanistan in support of Operation Enduring Freedom, and one deployment to Iraq in support of Operation Iraqi Freedom. Commander Adams has surged forward in support of contingency operations to the Horn of Africa and the Indian Ocean, as well as to Central America. While a judge advocate, he also parachuted into the Indian Ocean and then served as the afloat legal advisor for successful hostage rescue operations executed under orders of the President of the United States.
Kenneth Anderson is a professor of law at Washington College of Law, American University, a member of the Hoover Institution Task Force on National Security and Law, and a nonresident senior fellow of the Brookings Institution. Law teaching follows an earlier career in the international NGO and human rights worlds. A very, very long time ago he worked for Human Rights Watch, and was the founding director of its Arms Division, which focused on the unlawful use of weapons in conflicts, and was an early leader of the International Campaign to Ban Landmines and an editor of the seminal HRW report of the early 1990s, Landmines: A Deadly Legacy. Later he was general counsel to the Open Society Institute. In the last few years he has been writing on drones, targeted killing, emerging autonomous weapons, and regulation of covert action; his latest article is with Matthew Waxman, “Law and Ethics for Robot Soldiers” (Dec 2012 Policy Review); his book “Living With the UN: American Responsibility and International Order” was published in 2012 by Hoover Institution Press.
James H. Baker, as the Principal Deputy Director, Strategic Plans and Policy, is charged with leading and maturing a culture of strategic thinking across the J5 organization, conducting independent “red cell” analysis of current policies, and providing creative and global strategic perspectives on the full array of political-military challenges facing the Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff.
Prior to assuming the position as the Principal Deputy Director for Strategic Plans and Policy, Joint Staff, Jim was the Director of the Chairman’s Action Group (CAG) for the 17th Joint Chiefs of Staff, Admiral Mike Mullen.
In this capacity, he advised the Chairman on matters relating to the Chairman’s duty to provide best military advice. His team produced more than 600 strategic assessments, geopolitical analyses and studies on strategic matters ranging from Iran to Pakistan, Russia, cyberspace, civil- military relations, “Don’t Ask, Don’t Tell”, and more. He also accompanied the Chairman to more than 30 countries and throughout Iraq and Afghanistan in the performance of his duties.
Jim has held leadership positions at three different military Research, Development and Test Centers and four staff tours in the Pentagon. He spent more than half of his military career in joint assignments, proud to serve with Army, Navy, Air Force, Marine and Coast Guard officers at all levels.
Jim is a distinguished graduate of the National War College. He is also a distinguished graduate of the Air Command and Staff College, the Squadron Officer School, and the Reserve Officer Training Corps, and a member of the Council of Foreign Relations. He holds four graduate degrees, two in engineering disciplines and two in security studies. He is an alumnus of Harvard’s Advanced Management Program, MIT’s Seminar XXI program, and the Army’s Air Assault School.
Jim is married to his college sweetheart, Michele Radcliffe. They have a daughter, Chloe, of whom they are both so very proud.
Alice Beauheim is a Visiting Fellow in International Human Rights at the University of Minnesota. She is an attorney and expert on issues dealing with counterterrorism, security, and cooperation. Currently on sabbatical from the Office of the Director of National Intelligence, where she was most recently an intelligence and legal analyst, she also served in the US Army as a Serbian-Croatian linguist and intelligence analyst, graduating first in her class in basic combat training, intensive language school, and technical training. She was a 2009 Presidential Management Fellowship Finalist, and while in law school interned with the Office of the Prosecutor of the State Court of Bosnia-Herzegovina, where she assisted international prosecutors in building war crimes cases. Some of her professional writing can be found at Lawfare (www.lawfareblog.com). Beauheim holds a JD from the University of Virginia, an MA in modern European history from the University of Washington, and a BA in history from the University of Minnesota.
Major Gen. (Res.) Professor Isaac Ben-Israel was born in Israel (Tel-Aviv), 1949. He studied Mathematics, Physics and Philosophy at Tel-Aviv University, receiving his Ph.D. in 1988. He joined the Israel Air Force (IAF) after graduating high school (1967) and has served continuously up to his retirement (2002).
During his service, Isaac Ben-Israel has held several posts in operations, intelligence and weapon development units of the IAF. He headed the IAF Operations Research Branch, Analysis and Assessment Division of IAF Intelligence, and was the Head of Military R&D in Israel Defence Forces and Ministry of Defence (1991-1997). In January 1998 he was promoted to Major General and appointed as Director of Defence R&D Directorate in IMOD. During his service he received twice the Israeli Defence Award.
After retirement from the IDF Isaac Ben Israel joined the University of Tel-Aviv as a professor and was the head of Curiel Centre for International Studies (2002-2004), the head of the Program for Security Studies (2004-2007) and a member of Jaffe Centre for Strategic Studies (2002- 2004). In 2002 he founded and headed the Tel-Aviv University Workshop for Science, Technology and Security. In 2002 he founded RAY-TOP (Technology Opportunities) Ltd, consulting governments and industries in technological and strategic issues.
Professor Ben-Israel was a member of the 17th Knesset (Israeli Parliament) between June 2007 and February 2009. During this period he was a member of the Security and Foreign Affairs Committee, the Finance Committee, the Science & Technology committee, the Chairman of the Homeland Security Sub Committee and the Chairman of the Israeli–Indian Parliamentary Friendship Association.
In 2011 he was appointed by the Prime Minister to lead a task force that formulated Israel national Cyber policy. Following that he founded the National Cyber Headquarters in the PM Office. Isaac Ben Israel was a member of the board of directors of IAI (2000-2002), the board of the Israel Corp. (2004-2007) and the R&D advisory board of TEVA (2003-2007) and Chairman of the Technion Entrepreneurial Incubator (2007).
Professor Ben-Israel has written numerous papers on military and security issues. His book Dialogues on Science and Military Intelligence (1989) won the Itzhak-Sade Award for Military Literature. His book on The Philosophy of Military Intelligence had been published by the Broadcast University (1999) and has been translated into French (2004). His book Science, Technology and Security: From Soldiers in Combat up to Outer Space, was published in 2006.
Isaac is married to Inbal (née Marcus) and they have three sons: Yuval (1981), Roy (1984) and Alon (1988).
Gabriella Blum is the Rita E. Hauser Professor of Human Rights and Humanitarian Law at Harvard Law School, where she teaches international law and international conflict management. She is also Nonresident Senior Fellow, Governance Studies at the Brookings Institute. Following her studies of law and economics at Tel-Aviv University, Blum joined the Israel Defense Forces, and served as a senior legal advisor in the International Law Department, Military Advocate General’s Corps. During her military service, she was involved in the Israeli- Arab peace negotiations, Israeli strategic cooperation with foreign forces, and the administration of the Palestinian occupied territories.
After completing the LL.M. and SJD degrees at Harvard, she returned to the IDF, and then joined the Israeli National Security Council, Prime Minister’s Office, as a strategic advisor. In 2005, she returned to Harvard to join the Law School faculty.
Blum is the author of Islands of Agreement: Managing Enduring Armed Rivalries, (Harvard University Press, 2007), and Laws, Outlaws, and Terrorists: Lessons from the War on Terrorism (co-authored with Philip Heymann) (MIT Press), as well as of several journal articles on international law and the laws of war.
Philip C. Bobbitt is Herbert Wechsler Professor of Federal Jurisprudence and Director of the Center for National Security Law at Columbia Law School. He is one of the nation’s leading constitutional theorists, Professor Bobbitt’s interests include not only constitutional law but also international security and the history of strategy.
He has published seven books: Tragic Choices (with Calabresi) (1978), Constitutional Fate (1982), Democracy and Deterrence (1987), U.S. Nuclear Strategy (with Freedman and Treverton) (1989), Constitutional Interpretation (1991), The Shield of Achilles: War, Peace and the Course of History (Knopf, 2002), and, most recently, Terror and Consent (Knopf, 2008).
Bobbitt is a Fellow of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences. He is also a Fellow of the Club of Madrid. He is a Life Member of the American Law Institute, and a member of the Council on Foreign Relations, the Pacific Council on International Policy, the International Institute for Strategic Studies and the Executive Council of the American Society of International Law. He is a member of the Commission on the Continuity of Government. He has served as Law Clerk to the Hon. Henry J. Friendly (2 Cir.), Associate Counsel to the President, the Counselor on International Law at the State Department, Legal Counsel to the Senate Iran- Contra Committee, and Director for Intelligence, Senior Director for Critical Infrastructure and Senior Director for Strategic Planning at the National Security Council. Before coming to Columbia he was A.W. Walker Centennial Chair in Law at the University of Texas Law School. He is a former trustee of Princeton University; and a former member of the Oxford University Modern History Faculty and the War Studies Department of Kings College, London. He serves on the Editorial Board of Biosecurity and Bioterrorism. For the Fall term 2005, he was the James Barr Ames Visiting Professor of Law at Harvard Law School. For the Spring term 2007, he was the Samuel Rubin Visiting Professor of Law at Columbia Law School at the conclusion of which he joined the faculty of Columbia Law School. He also serves as a Senior Fellow at the Robert S. Strauss Center for International Security and Law at the University of Texas.
Rabbi Nachum Braverman is the Executive Director of Academic Exchange (Beverly Hills, California).
Joel F. Brenner specializes in data protection and privacy, network security, intelligence law, and the regulation of sensitive cross-border transactions. He has represented companies and individuals in a wide variety of transactions and proceedings including sensitive foreign acquisitions and overseas operations, the liability of foreign governments, export controls, and internal corporate investigations. He has years of experience inside and outside government involving national and homeland security and enjoys working with companies of all sizes.
Before joining Cooley, Brenner was Senior Counsel at the National Security Agency, advising Agency leadership on the public-private effort to create better security for the Internet. From 2006 until mid-2009, he was the head of U.S. counterintelligence under the Director of National Intelligence and was responsible for integrating the counterintelligence activities of the 17 departments and agencies with intelligence authorities, including the FBI and CIA and elements of the Departments of Defense, Energy, and Homeland Security. From 2002 – 2006, Brenner was NSA’s Inspector General, responsible for that agency’s top-secret internal audits and investigations. He has also served as a prosecutor in the Justice Department’s Antitrust Division and has extensive trial and arbitration experience in private practice.
Brenner holds a JD from the Harvard Law School, a PhD from the London School of Economics, and a BA from the University of Wisconsin – Madison.
He is a member of the American Bar Association’s Standing Committee on Law & National Security. He has written about intelligence oversight and Presidential authority to suspend or prohibit foreign takeovers of U.S. firms, and is often quoted in the national media on data security, privacy, and intelligence issues. Brenner was awarded the Intelligence Community Achievement Medal in July 2009.
Brenner is the author of “American the Vulnerable: Inside the New Threat matrix of Digital Espionage, Crime and Warfare” (Penguin Press, 2011).
Brenner is admitted to practice in Washington, DC, Virginia, Maryland, and New York and in a variety of federal trial and appellate courts.
Andrew Borene is an executive and licensed attorney with more than 10 years of professional experience in business, law and government. He has special expertise in the national security enterprise, information workflow, government relations and building world-leading strategic relationships between public, private and academic partners.
Andrew is currently Executive Director of Robotics AlleyTM (www.roboticsalley.org) and Director of Corporate Business Development at ReconRobotics (www.reconrobotics.com). He teaches U.S. National Security Policy as an Adjunct Professor at Macalester College. He is also a Director-at-Large with the FBI’s InfraGard Alliance Minnesota Executive Board, a corporate constituent of the U.S. State Department’s Overseas Advisory Council (OSAC), and a consultant to Adventium Labs.
Formerly an Associate Deputy General Counsel with the U.S. Department of Defense, Andrew has been adjunct faculty at the University of Minnesota’s Humphrey Institute of Public Affairs. He was a program manager with LexisNexis where he supported U.S. defense and intelligence agencies with open source intelligence (OSINT). He began his professional career as a Public Finance Associate at Wells Fargo & Co. He also served on active duty as a U.S. Marine intelligence officer with the 1st Marine Division, including combat service in Iraq and time as the executive officer for its Headquarters & Service Company at Camp Pendleton.
Andrew was a judicial extern in the chambers of Judge John Tunheim, U.S. District Court, District of Minnesota. He was also a U.S. Department of State funded fellow for the study of post-conflict peace-building in Northern Ireland. A published author and editor, Andrew has written Op-Ed pieces in The New York Times, The Hill, The Washington Times and other publications. He has been a contributor to The Star-Tribune’s Commentary page and MPR’s NewsQ. He has also appeared live on CNN, ABC News, Fox News, CBS, National Public Radio and BBC. He is also the founding editor of the ABA’s “U.S. Intelligence Community Law Sourcebook”.
Roger Brent, PhD is a Full Member of the Division of Basic Sciences and an Adjunct Member of the Division of Public Health Sciences of the Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center. He is also Affiliate Professor of the Department of Genome Sciences at the University of Washington.
Brent and his coworkers use single cells to learn how cell signaling pathways represent and transmit information, and operate on that information to make decisions. Although this work is basic, it is relevant to cancer, normal development from the fertilized egg, and the classes of cellular decisions involved in maintenance of the adult organism. His lab’s research draws on molecular biological methods, genetics, methods from physics, and applied mathematics. It often generates methods and technologies for understanding quantitative cell behavior that have utility for addressing wider biological problems, some of which find commercial application.
Before joining the Hutchinson Center faculty in 2009, Brent was president and research director of the Molecular Sciences Institute in Berkeley, California.
In addition to his academic work, Brent has been a longtime adviser to the biotechnology and pharmaceutical industries. He is the inventor of 12 issued patents and several pending patents. He also advises various U.S. federal agencies—including the National Institutes of Health, the National Science Foundation, the Department of Energy, and the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency—on functional genomics and computational biology. He advises the US government on developments in biology and on means to diminish the probability and mitigate the consequences of biological attacks.
In 2003 he received the Gabbay Award in Biotechnology and Medicine for his work on protein interactions, and in 2011, he was elected as a fellow of the American Association for the Advancement of Science for “outstanding contributions in the area of biochemistry, transcription, genomics, and systems biology.”
Since 2011, he has also directed the Center for Biological Futures at FHCRC, whose goal is to generate better thinking and scholarship about the impacts that advances in biological knowledge and capability are having on human affairs.
Melinda J. Brown is the General Counsel of The Charles Stark Draper Laboratory in Cambridge, Massachusetts, a non-profit independent research and development corporation. Prior to joining Draper, Brown was the Vice President and General Counsel of NameMedia, Inc., an online community and domain name marketplace company. She has also served as Vice President and General Counsel of Sonus Networks, Inc., a next-generation telecommunications products company and as Vice President and General Counsel of Lotus Development Corporation, an enterprise software applications company and a subsidiary of IBM.
Michael Callahan, MD, DTM&H (U.K.), MSPH is a physician scientist at Massachusetts General Hospital and Harvard Medical School who is board certified in internal medicine and infectious diseases and holds a Diplomat of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene. Dr. Callahan’s clinical and basic science research focus is the rapid development of globally viable therapies for catastrophic and emerging infectious diseases. Dr. Callahan’s basic science and clinical training aincludes research positions at the School of International Health, University of Alabama School of Medicine, Shriners Burn Institute, Massachusetts General Hospital, and the University of Colorado Health Science Center. His clinical research experience focuses on HIV, TB, malaria, dengue and emerging viral pathogens with OCONUS experience directing USAID Mission projects in Nigeria, Democratic Republic of Congo and Ghana (2001-2005); Dept of State hospital based biosurveillance in 5 S.E. Asian Nations and deployment under 3 disease outbreak organizations (Rescue Medicine; ASEAN; World Health Organization/TDRC). Dr. Callahan joined the Faculty of Harvard Medical School and the teaching staff of Massachusetts General Hospital in 2001.
In 2005, Dr. Callahan joined the Defense Advanced Research Project Agency (DARPA) where he conceived and executed 4 large scale medical therapeutics programs within DARPA’s Biodefense and Accelerated Insertion of Therapeutics Programs. Over the next 7 years the portfolio was advanced from early discovery (TRL1) to international clinical biosurveillance and intervention trials in 5 tropical nations. Dr. Callahan has served as member of 3 HHS Secretary working groups, on 2 Institute of Medicine working groups on biological threats, H5N1 and Pandemic Influenza. In September, 2012, Dr. Callahan accepted the position as President of Unither Virology, a wholly-owned subsidiary of United Therapeutics Corporation (UTHR). Unither Virology has developed a portfolio of computational ligand-designed host-directed antiviral agent that are intended to cost pennies per dose and can which can be refined from plant-derived iminosugars.
General James Cartwright retired from active duty on 1 September 2011, after 40 years of service in the United States Marine Corps.
Unique among Marines, General Cartwright served as Commander, U.S. Strategic Command, before being nominated and appointed as the 8th Vice Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff, the nation’s second highest military officer. General Cartwright served his four year tenure as Vice Chairman across two Presidential administrations and constant military operations against diverse and evolving enemies. He became widely recognized for his technical acumen, vision of future national security concepts, and keen ability to integrate systems, organizations and people in ways that encouraged creativity and sparked innovation in the areas of strategic deterrence, nuclear proliferation, missile defense, cyber security, and adaptive acquisition processes.
Born in Rockford, IL, he attended the University of Iowa and was commissioned a Second Lieutenant of Marines in 1971. He was both a Naval Flight Officer and Naval Aviator who flew the F-4 Phantom, OA-4 Skyhawk, and F/A-18 Hornet. In 1983 he was named Outstanding Carrier Aviator of the Year by the Association of Naval Aviation. General Cartwright graduated with distinction from the Air Command and Staff College, received a Master of Arts in National Security and Strategic Studies from the Naval War College, completed a fellowship with the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, and was honored with a Naval War College Distinguished Graduate Leadership Award.
General Cartwright currently serves as the inaugural holder of the Harold Brown Chair in Defense Policy Studies for the Center for Strategic & International Studies. He is also a member of Defense Policy Board Advisory Committee which provides independent, informed advice to the Secretary of Defense on long-term, enduring issues central to strategic planning. In addition, General Cartwright serves as a member of The Raytheon Company Board of Directors, a Harvard Belfer Center Senior Fellow, and as a defense consultant for ABC News.
General Cartwright is also an advisor for several corporate entities involved in global management consulting; technology services and program solutions; predictive and Big Data Analytics; and advanced systems engineering, integration, and decision-support services. He serves as an advisor to the Boards of Directors for Accenture Federal Services, Enlightenment Capital, IxReveal, Logos Technologies, Opera Solutions, and TASC. General Cartwright is also affiliated with a number of professional organizations to include the Aspen Strategy Group, The Atlantic Council, Global Zero, and the Nuclear Threat Initiative.
James B. Comey was most recently General Counsel of Bridgewater Associates, an institutional money manager in Westport, Connecticut, where he worked from 2010 to 2013, overseeing the legal, compliance, and security departments. Since 2012, he has also served as a member of the Defense Legal Policy Board, charged with providing independent advice to the Secretary of Defense.
From 2005 to 2010, he was Senior Vice President and General Counsel of the Lockheed Martin Corporation, responsible for management of the Corporation’s legal affairs and law department, including serving as principal counsel to Lockheed Martin Corporation’s senior leadership and the Board of Directors.
From 2003 through 2005, he served as Deputy Attorney General of the United States and was responsible for supervising the operations of the Department of Justice. Prior to becoming Deputy Attorney General, Comey was United States Attorney for the Southern District of New York. From 1996 through 2001, Comey served as Managing Assistant U.S. Attorney in charge of the Richmond Division of the United States Attorney’s office for the Eastern District of Virginia.
Comey was educated at the College of William & Mary (B.S. with Honors 1982, Chemistry and Religion majors) and the University of Chicago Law School (J.D. 1985). After law school, he served as a law clerk for then-United States District Judge John M. Walker, Jr. in Manhattan, and worked for Gibson, Dunn & Crutcher in their New York Office. He next joined the U.S. Attorney’s Office for the Southern District of New York, where he worked from 1987 to 1993, eventually serving as Deputy Chief of the Criminal Division.
As United States Attorney, Comey oversaw numerous terrorism cases and supervised prosecutions of executives of WorldCom, Adelphia, and Imclone on fraud and securities-related charges. Comey also created a specialized unit devoted to prosecuting international drug cartels.
As Deputy Attorney General, he chaired the President’s Corporate Fraud Task Force and the Presidential Board on Safeguarding Americans’ Civil Liberties.
As an Assistant United States Attorney in the Eastern District of Virginia, he handled the Khobar Towers terrorist bombing case, arising out of the June 1996 attack on a U.S. military facility in Saudi Arabia in which 19 Airmen were killed. He has personally investigated and prosecuted a wide variety of cases, including firearms, narcotics, major frauds, violent crime, public corruption, terrorism, and organized crime. In the Southern District of New York, he served as lead prosecutor in United States v. John Gambino et al., a six-month mafia racketeering and murder trial in 1993.
While in Richmond, Comey also served as an Adjunct Professor of law at the University of Richmond. Prior to joining the U.S. Attorney’s office in Richmond in 1996, he was a partner at McGuireWoods, LLP specializing in criminal defense and commercial litigation.
Jim is married and has five children.
Richard Danzig is Chairman of the Center for a New American Security, a Trustee of The RAND Corporation, a member of the Defense Policy Board and The President’s Intelligence Advisory Board, and a director of Saffron Hill Ventures (a European venture capital fund). In recent years his other activities have included service as The Chairman of the Board of the Center for Strategic and Budgetary Assessments and as a member of the Boards of Public Agenda, the Partnership for Public Service, The National Semiconductor Corporation (a NY Stock Exchange Company sold to Texas Instruments in 2011) and Human Genome Sciences (a NASDAQ company sold to GlaxoSmithKline in 2012).
From the spring of 2007 through the Presidential election of 2008, Dr. Danzig was a senior advisor to Senator Obama on national security issues. Dr. Danzig served as the 71st Secretary of the Navy from November 1998 to January 2001. He was the Under Secretary of the Navy between 1993 and 1997.
Dr. Danzig is a senior advisor at the Center for New American Security, the Center for Naval Analyses, and the Center for Strategic and International Studies in Washington DC. His primary activity is as a consultant to the Departments of Defense and Homeland Security on terrorism.
Dr. Danzig was born in New York City in 1944. He received a B.A. degree from Reed College, a J.D. degree from Yale Law School, and Bachelor of Philosophy and Doctor of Philosophy degrees from Oxford University, where he was a Rhodes Scholar. Upon his graduation from Yale, Dr. Danzig served as a law clerk to U.S. Supreme Court Justice Byron White.
Between 1972 and 1977, Dr. Danzig was an Assistant and then Associate Professor of Law at Stanford University, a Prize Fellow of the Harvard Society of Fellows, and a Rockefeller Foundation Fellow. During this period, he wrote a book on contract law and articles on constitutional history, contracts, criminal procedure, and law and literature.
From 1977 to 1981, Dr. Danzig served in the Office of the Assistant Secretary of Defense, first as a Deputy Assistant Secretary and then as the Principal Deputy Assistant Secretary of Defense for Manpower, Reserve Affairs and Logistics. In these roles, he contributed particularly to the development of the Department’s ability to mobilize manpower and materiel for deployment abroad. In 1981, he was awarded the Defense Distinguished Public Service Award. He received that same honor—the highest Department of Defense civilian award—twice more in 1997 and 2001 for his work with the Navy and Marine Corps.
Between 1981 and 1993, Dr. Danzig was a partner in the law firm of Latham and Watkins. Resident in Washington, his unusually broad legal practice encompassed white-collar crime defense work, civil litigation, and corporate work, including heading the firm’s Japan practice. During this time he co-authored a book on National Service, taught contracts at Georgetown Law School, and was a Director of the National Semiconductor Corporation, a Trustee of Reed College, and litigation director and then vice chair of the International Human Rights Group. In 1991, he was awarded that organization’s Tony Friedrich Memorial Award as pro-bono human rights lawyer of the year.
Dr. Danzig and his wife, Andrea, reside in Washington, DC where Mrs. Danzig has an active practice as a psychotherapist. They have two adult children, David and Lisa. Danzig’s recent publications include “Driving in the Dark: Ten Propositions About Prediction” and as co-author of “Aum Shinrikyo: Insights into How Terrorists Develop Biological and Chemical Weapons,” both published by The Center for a New American Security.
Alex Dimitrief is the Senior Vice President & General Counsel for GE Capital, the financial services unit of the General Electric Company. GE Capital provides financial products and services to businesses and consumers globally. It finished 2011 with a net income of $6.5 billion and assets in excess of $584.5 billion.
Dimitrief joined GE in February 2007 as Vice President for Litigation & Legal Policy. He was responsible for litigation and enforcement proceedings against GE and all of its business segments. He also oversaw GE’s worldwide Compliance programs and served on GE’s Corporate Executive Council and Policy Compliance Review Board.
Dimitrief then served as Vice President & General Counsel of GE Energy from November 2011 – October 2012. He oversaw the Legal and Compliance functions for GE Energy’s worldwide portfolio, including the Power & Water, Oil & Gas and Energy Management businesses.
Dimitrief came to GE from Kirkland & Ellis LLP, where he had been a trial lawyer in the Firm’s Chicago and New York offices since 1986. His practice spanned many industries and subject areas, including securities, intellectual property disputes, environmental matters and products liability and bankruptcy litigation.
Dimitrief was a White House Fellow in the Reagan Administration’s Office of Political and Intergovernmental Affairs and an Honors Intern at the Department of Justice. He graduated from Yale College in 1981 with a degree in Economics & Political Science and earned his J.D. in 1985 at Harvard Law School, where he was the Managing Editor of the Harvard Law Review.
Dimitrief and his wife Jill have three children and are actively involved in supporting numerous charitable organizations in Chicago, Fairfield County and New York City. He presently serves on the Boards of the Constitutional Rights Foundation – Chicago, the Ronald McDonald House of New York City and the Westport Country Playhouse.
Yuval Elovici is the director of the Telekom Innovation Laboratories at Ben-Gurion University and an Associate Professor at the Department of Information Systems Engineering of Ben- Gurion University. He holds B.Sc. and M.Sc. degrees in Computer and Electrical Engineering from the Ben-Gurion University, and Ph.D in Information Systems from Tel-Aviv University. He served as the head of the Software Engineering program at Ben-Gurion University for two and a half years. Prof. Elovici also professionally consults in the area of the cyber security. In the last seven years he has lead the cooperation between Ben-Gurion University and Deutsche Telekom. In addition, he has published more than 50 referred journal papers in leading journals, published over 80 papers in various referred conferences and co-authored a book on social network security and a book on information leakage detection and prevention. His main research interests are Computer and Network Security, Cyber Security, Web Intelligence, Information Warfare, Social Network Analysis and Machine Learning.
Jack Goldsmith is Henry L. Shattuck Professor of Law at Harvard University. He is the author, most recently, of The Terror Presidency: Law and Judgment Inside The Bush Administration (W.W. Norton 2007), as well as of other books and articles on many topics related to terrorism, national security, international law, conflicts of law, and internet law. Before coming to Harvard, Goldsmith served as Assistant Attorney General, Office of Legal Counsel, from October 2003 through July 2004, and Special Counsel to the General Counsel to the Department of Defense from September 2002 through June 2003. Goldsmith taught at the University of Chicago Law School from 1997-2002, and at the University of Virginia Law School from 1994- 1997. He holds a J.D. from Yale Law School, a B.A. and M.A. from Oxford University, and a B.A. from Washington & Lee University. He clerked for Supreme Court Justice Anthony M. Kennedy, Court of Appeals Judge J. Harvie Wilkinson, and Judge George Aldrich on the Iran- U.S. Claims Tribunal.
Shane Harris is the author of The Watchers: The Rise of America’s Surveillance State (Penguin Press, 2010) and is senior writer at The Washingtonian, for which, he also writes for the newly published blog, Dead Drop. He is the winner of 2010 Gerald R. Ford Prize for Distinguished Reporting on National Defense and has written about the legal, political, and technological implications of drones and robotic weapons.
Professor Amir Herzberg is a tenured associate professor in the department of computer science, Bar Ilan University. He received B.Sc. (1982, Computer Engineering), M.Sc. (1987, Electrical Engineering) and D.Sc. (1991, Computer Science), all from the Technion, Israel. His current research interests include:
- Network security, esp. Internet protocols: TCP/IP, DNS, routing, Denial-of-Service, spam.
- Applied cryptography: provable yet applied. Esp., crypto-protocols for security, and resilient crypto (to exposures, cryptanalysis, side-channels).
- Privacy, anonymity and covert communication, including defenses and attacks (e.g., on Tor).
- Cyber-security, mainly: Malware communication and detection, security of devices and autonmous agents (robots).
- Usable security and social-engineering attacks, incl. phishing, and defenses – even for naive users (`Johnny`).
- Financial cryptography, i.e., using cryptography to innovate financial systems, protocols and networks, esp. payments.
- Trust management – building and using it, mainly to secure e-commerce, P2P networks, and more.
- Network protocols and distributed algorithms, esp. peer to peer and social networking, vehicular networking.
- Security of and using new network paradigms: clouds and SDN. He filled research and management positions in IBM Research, Israeli Defense Forces and several companies, and is consulting when time allows.
Michael Ignatieff is a writer, teacher and former politician. Born in Canada, educated at the University of Toronto and Harvard University, he has written seventeen books, worked as a television presenter and documentary film maker, editorial columnist and university teacher. He has taught at the University of British Columbia, Cambridge University, the London School of Economics and Harvard University, where he was Director of the Carr Center for Human Rights Policy at the Kennedy School of Government between 2000 and 2005. He is a member of the Queen’s Privy Council for Canada and holds eleven honorary degrees.
He is the author of The Needs of Strangers, (1984), Scar Tissue (1992), Isaiah Berlin (1998) The Rights Revolution (2000) Human Rights as Politics and Idolatry (2001), The Lesser Evil: Political Ethics in an Age of Terror (2004), and True Patriot Love (2009)
Between 2006 and 2011, he was Member of Parliament for Etobicoke Lakeshore, Deputy Leader and Leader of the Liberal Party of Canada.
He holds a joint professorial appointment at the Munk School of Global Affairs, University of Toronto and the Kennedy School of Government, Harvard University.
Mitchell R. Julis is Co-Founder, Co-Chairman and Co-CEO of Canyon Partners, LLC, a leading global alternative asset management firm headquartered in Los Angeles, California. Canyon manages approximately $20 billion in assets, specializing in credit-oriented investments for endowments, foundations, pension funds, sovereign wealth funds and other institutional investors. Canyon’s investment strategies focus on bank debt, distressed debt, high yield and convertible bonds, securitized assets, direct investments, arbitrage and value equities. Canyon also invests in real estate through Canyon Capital Realty Advisors and the Canyon Johnson Urban Fund, and in emerging market debt securities through ICE Canyon LLC.
Julis is a graduate of the Woodrow Wilson School at Princeton University (B.A., magna cum laude, Phi Beta Kappa), Harvard Law School (J.D., magna cum laude) and Harvard Business School (M.B.A., honors). Prior to forming Canyon, Julis directed a group of professionals responsible for a portfolio of distressed and special situation securities at Drexel Burnham Lambert. Prior to working at Drexel, he was a bankruptcy and creditors’ rights attorney at Wachtell, Lipton, Rosen & Katz in New York. Julis has authored a number of articles published in law journals and other periodicals on the subject of bankruptcy and distressed credit investing.
Julis lives in Los Angeles with his wife, Joleen, and their 4 children.
Stephen D. Krasner is the Graham H. Stuart Professor of International Relations at Stanford, Senior Associate Dean for the Social Sciences, a Senior Fellow and Deputy Director at the Freeman Spogli Institute, and a Senior Fellow at the Hoover Institution and at the Stanford Center for International Development. From February 2005 to April 2007 he was Director of the Policy Planning Staff at the Department of State. In 2002 he served as Director for Governance and Development at the National Security Council. He is a member of the Board of Directors of the United States Institute of Peace, and the Foreign Policy Advisory Board of the Department of State.
He received his B.A. from Cornell in 1963, M.A. from Columbia in 1967, and Ph.D. from Harvard in 1972. Before coming to Stanford in 1981 he taught at Harvard and UCLA. He was the Chair of the Political Science Department from 1984 until 1991 and editor of International Organization from 1986 to 1992. His writings have dealt primarily with the political determinants of international economic relations, American foreign policy, and sovereignty. He has been a fellow at the Center for Advanced Studies in the Behavioral Sciences (1987-88) and at the Wissenschaftskolleg zu Berlin (2000-2001). Professor Krasner is a Fellow of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences and a Member of the Council on Foreign Relations.
Susan Landau works in the areas of cybersecurity, privacy, and public policy. Landau was a Distinguished Engineer at Sun Microsystems, and has been a faculty member at the University of Massachusetts at Amherst and at Wesleyan University. She has held visiting positions at Harvard, Cornell, and Yale, and the Mathematical Sciences Research Institute. Landau is the author of Surveillance or Security? The Risks Posed by New Wiretapping Technologies (MIT Press, 2011), and co-author, with Whitfield Diffe, of Privacy on the Line: The Politics of Wiretapping and Encryption (MIT Press, 1998, rev. ed. 2007). She has written numerous computer science and public policy papers, as well as op-eds on cybersecurity and encryption policy. She has testified to Congress on wiretapping and cybersecurity issues, and has briefed legislators in Europe and the US on various cybersecurity concerns, including encryption, surveillance, and digital-rights management.
Landau serves on the Computer Science Telecommunications Board of the National Research Council, and has been a member of the advisory committee for the National Science Foundation’s Directorate for Computer and Information Science and Engineering, the Commission on Cyber Security for the 44th Presidency, and on NIST’s Information Security and Privacy Advisory Board. Landau was a 2012 Guggenheim fellow, a fellow at the Radcliffe Institute for Advanced Study, the recipient of the 2008 Women of Vision Social Impact Award, and a fellow of both the American Association for the Advancement of Science and the Association for Computing Machinery. She received her BA from Princeton, her MS from Cornell, and her PhD from MIT.
Dr. Herbert Lin is chief scientist at the Computer Science and Telecommunications Board, National Research Council of the National Academies, where he has been study director of major projects on public policy and information technology, including several studies on cybersecurity. Prior to his NRC service, he was a professional staff member and staff scientist for the House Armed Services Committee (1986-1990), where his portfolio included defense policy and arms control issues. He received his doctorate in physics from MIT.
Daniel J. Meltzer is Story Professor of Law at Harvard Law School. His primary scholarly interests are in the fields of federal courts and criminal law, but he has also taught or published in the fields of constitutional law, remedies, and comparative U.S./European federalism. He is the co-author of several editions of Hart & Wechsler’s The Federal Courts and the Federal System and has published widely in law journals.
He holds an A.B. from Harvard College and a J.D. from Harvard Law School, where he served as President of the Harvard Law Review and was awarded the Fay Diploma. Upon graduation, he served as a law clerk to Judge Carl McGowan of the United States Court of Appeals for the District of Columbia Circuit and to Supreme Court Justice Potter Stewart. He then worked as Special Assistant to Secretary Joseph A. Califano, Jr. at the Department of Health, Education and Welfare.
Thereafter, Meltzer practiced law at Williams & Connolly in Washington, D.C., until he joined the Harvard Law School faculty in 1982. From 2009-10, Meltzer served as the Principal Deputy Counsel to the President. After leaving that position, he was appointed as a member of the President’s Intelligence Advisory Board, on which he continues to serve.
Meltzer is a Fellow of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences and a member of the Council of the American Law Institute. He has served as a member of the Committee on Rules of Practice and Procedure of the United States Judicial Conference and as an Associate Counsel, Office of Independent Counsel Lawrence E. Walsh, Iran-Contra Prosecution. He has also served as an Advisor to the American Law Institute’s Projects on Revision of the Federal Judicial Code and on Sentencing, as well as an Advisor to the Subcommittee on the Relationship of State and Federal Courts, Federal Courts Study Committee, Judicial Conference of the United States (February 1989-April 1990). In the past he has been a member of the Advisory Committee of the Nieman Foundation and a member and President of the Board of the Guidance Center in Cambridge, Massachusetts.
Dalia Rabin serves as the Chair of the Yitzhak Rabin Center, The Center situated in Tel Aviv is the national institute established by the Knesset in 1997 that advances the legacy of the late Israeli Prime Minister Yitzhak Rabin, a path-breaking, visionary leader whose life was cut short in a devastating assassination. The Center presents Yitzhak Rabin’s remarkable life and tragic death, pivotal elements of Israeli history, through its Israeli Museum, archives and educational programs. The Center’s mission is to ensure that the vital lessons from this story are remembered, and are used to shape an Israeli society characterized by open dialogue, democratic values and social cohesion.
Rabin was elected to the Knesset in 1999 on the Center Party ticket where she chaired the Ethics Committee and was a member of the Constitution, Law and Justice Committee; the Committee for the Advancement of the Status of Women; the State Control Committee; and, the Committee for the Advancement of the Status of the Child. In March 2001, she was appointed deputy minister of defense. She resigned in July 2002 to head the Rabin Center.
An attorney by profession, she served for 14 years in the Civil Division of the Tel Aviv District Attorney’s office, specializing in labor law before serving as legal adviser to the Professional Associations of the General Federation of Labor, the “Histadrut.”
Dalia holds an L.L.B. from Tel Aviv University and has two children, Yonatan and Noa, and is the proud grandmother of four grandchildren.
Noah Shachtman is a contributing editor at Wired magazine and the editor of its award-winning national security blog, Danger Room. He’s reported from Afghanistan, Israel, Iraq, Qatar, Kuwait, and Russia. A non-resident fellow at the Brookings Institution’s 21st Century Defense Initiative, Shachtman has written about technology and national security for The New York Times Magazine, The Wall Street Journal, The Washington Post, Foreign Policy, and The Bulletin of the Atomic Scientists, among others. The offices of the Undersecretary of Defense for Intelligence, the Undersecretary of Defense for Policy, and the Director of National Intelligence have all asked him to contribute to discussions on cyber security, military technology, and emerging threats.
Before turning to journalism, Shachtman worked as a professional bass player, book editor, and campaign staffer on Bill Clinton’s first presidential campaign.
He lives in Brooklyn with his wife and two sons.
Benjamin Wittes is a senior fellow in Governance Studies at The Brookings Institution and co- director of the Harvard Law School-Brookings Project on Law and Security. He is the author of Detention and Denial: The Case for Candor After Guantanamo, published in November 2011 by the Brookings Institution Press, and co-editor of Constitution 3.0: Freedom and Technological Change (forthcoming from the Brookings Institution Press). He is writing a book on data and technology proliferation and their implications for security. He is also the author of Law and the Long War: The Future of Justice in the Age of Terror, published in June 2008 by The Penguin Press, and the editor of the 2009 Brookings book, Legislating the War on Terror: An Agenda for Reform. He co-founded and co-writes the Lawfare blog (http://www.lawfareblog.com/), which is devoted to non-ideological discussion of the “Hard National Security Choices,” and is a member of the Hoover Institution’s Task Force on National Security and Law.
His previous books include Starr: A Reassessment, which was published in 2002 by Yale University Press, and Confirmation Wars: Preserving Independent Courts in Angry Times, published in 2006 by Rowman & Littlefield and the Hoover Institution.
Between 1997 and 2006, he served as an editorial writer for The Washington Post specializing in legal affairs. Before joining the editorial page staff of The Washington Post, Wittes covered the Justice Department and federal regulatory agencies as a reporter and news editor at Legal Times. His writing has also appeared in a wide range of journals and magazines, including The Atlantic, Slate, The New Republic, The Wilson Quarterly, The Weekly Standard, Policy Review, and First Things.
Benjamin Wittes was born November 5, 1969 in Boston, Massachusetts, and graduated from Oberlin College in 1990. He has a black belt in taekwondo.
Jonathan Zittrain is Professor of Law at Harvard Law School and the Harvard Kennedy School of Government, Professor of Computer Science at the Harvard School of Engineering and Applied Sciences, and co-founder of the Berkman Center for Internet & Society. His research interests include battles for control of digital property and content, cryptography, electronic privacy, the roles of intermediaries within Internet architecture, human computing, and the useful and unobtrusive deployment of technology in education.
He performed the first large-scale tests of Internet filtering in China and Saudi Arabia, and as part of the OpenNet Initiative co-edited a series of studies of Internet filtering by national governments: Access Denied: The Practice and Policy of Global Internet Filtering; Access Controlled: The Shaping of Power, Rights, and Rule in Cyberspace; and Access Contested: Security, Identity, and Resistance in Asian Cyberpace.
He is a member of the Board of Directors of the Electronic Frontier Foundation and the Board of Advisors for Scientific American. He has served as a Trustee of the Internet Society, and as a Forum Fellow of the World Economic Forum, which named him a Young Global Leader, and as Distinguished Scholar-in-Residence at the Federal Communications Commission, where he chairs the Open Internet Advisory Committee. His book The Future of the Internet – And How to Stop It is available from Yale University Press and Penguin UK – and under a Creative Commons license. Papers may be found at <http://www.jz.org>.
Also in attendance:
Professor Bob Art (Brandeis University)
Shai Bazak – Consul General of Israel to New England (Boston, MA)
Professor Charles R. Beitz – Director of the Center for Human Values (Princeton University)
Professor Timothy Crawford (Boston College)
Stuart W. Davidson (Yitzhak Rabin Center) (Tel Aviv, Israel)
Thomas Ferguson – Director of Research Projects for the Institute for New Economic Thinking (New York, NY)
Jeannie Gerzon (Yitzhak Rabin Center) (Tel Aviv, Israel)
Professor Oren Gross – Director of the Institute for International Legal & Security Studies (University of Minnesota Law School)
Pinni Meidan-Shani (Yitzhak Rabin Center) (Tel Aviv, Israel)
Naz Modirzadeh – Senior Fellow of the HLS-Brookings Project on Law and Security (Harvard Law School)
Professor Adyinka Omotunde (Kennesaw State University)
Dr. Robert Riegle – President of Threat Deterrence, LLC (Alexandria, VA)
Meg Stalcup – Senior Research Scholar for the Center for Biological Futures (Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center) (Seattle, WA)
Professor Allan Stam – Director of the International Policy Center (University of Michigan) Ritika Singh (The Brookings Institution) (Washington, D.C.) Skip Victor (Academic Exchange) (Beverly Hills, CA)